Final Exam Review Sheet

Below is a list of key terms and key ideas for each topic we have covered in the 2nd part of the semester. I have listed these terms here to aid you in studying for the exam. The final exam is 25-30 multiple choice questions, no essays, so I have not included questions for review (the way I did with the midterm exam).

Persisting Segregation

  • Overt vs. Institutional vs. De Jure discrimination
  • Fair housing act of 1968
  • Three theories for why residential segregation persists
  • Racial steering
  • ‘Unofficial’ Redlining (the mortagage gap and the insurance gap)
  • Reverse redlining
  • Home Mortgage Disclosure Act
  • Residential Segregation and Life Chances

Gentrification

  • Luxury Growth Strategy
  • Main social actors that promote gentrification and how they promote gentrification (business, developers, the city, gentrifiers, etc)
  • The main consequences of gentrification (Revitalization and/or Displacement) – think about what ‘consequences’ long-time residents face vs. new residents, and why it matters. (Think about the first half of the semester…)

Affordable Housing

  • Crisis of Affordable Housing
  • Rent-burdened / Severely Rent-burdened
  • How is affordable housing related to labor trends?
  • Public Housing
  • Decontration of Poverty – HOPE VI
  • NYCHA
  • Section 8
  • Tax incentives for developers
  • Mandatory Inclusionary Housing
  • Neighborhood Rezoning
  • Community Land Trusts

Public Space

  • Public Space
  • Private-public vs. private vs. public stewardship
  • Liberal vs. Post-Liberal conceptions of public space
  • Militarization of public space
  • Privatization of public space
  • Business Improvement Districts
  • Fortress architecture
  • Tourist Growth Strategy
  • The importance of public space and democracy

Criminal Justice

  • 13th Amendment
  • Black Codes
  • Jim Crow
  • Horizontal vs. Vertical Expansions of the prison system
  • Mass incarceration vs. Hyper-incarceration
  • Disproportionate impact of policing practices
  • Law & Order, Tough on Crime, Southern Strategy & the War on Drugs
  • Broken windows policing
  • Criminalization of poverty
  • Racial Profiling
  • Stop and Frisk
  • Selective prosecution
  • Unfair sentencing guidelines
  • Social and political production of criminal, crime, drugs, and dangerous
  • Race and Criminality
  • Social Justice and Criminality
  • Prison Industrial Complex
  • Social welfare state to social control state
  • Primary, secondary, and tertiary effects of contact with the CJ system

Immigration Policy

  • Immigration Reform and Control Act, 1986 (IRCA)
  • Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA)
  • Arizona SB 1070
  • Border checkpoints
  • ‘Crimigration’
  • Immigration detention
  • Obama Immigration Reforms (DACA and Deferred Action program)
  • Fear-generating myths used to promote harsh immigration policy
  • Guest Worker Programs
  • Illegal/undocumented immigrants – and reasons for ‘illegality’
  • May Day
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